| Home | Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | Chapter 6 | Chapter 7 | Chapter 8 | Chapter 9 | Chapter 10 | 
| Chapter 11 | Chapter 12 | Chapter 13 | Chapter 14 | Chapter 15 | Chapter 16 | Chapter 17 | Chapter 18 | Chapter 19 | Glossary |

ECONOMIC TREND

Livelihood Pattern

The combined population of the present district of Gorakhpur and Deoria depending on agriculture was found to be 71.6 percent of the total population of the district (29,338,685) in 1901 which increased to 88.1 percent of the same (32,01,180) in 1911 and to 91.8 per cent (of 32,66,830) in 1921 when the rate of increase was arrested. By 1951, however, the percentage dropped to 88.5 percent (of 21,20,627) although the actual number of persons depending on agriculture had increased to 38,41,275 in 1951 from 29,97,997 giving rise of 28.1 percent in 1921. In 1951, the percentage for the State was 74.2.

Workers and Non-workers

In 1921, the percentage of workers in the total population was 62.28 (agriculture 57.20 percent, non-agriculture 5.08 percent) but by 1951, it had come down to 49.68 (agriculture 44.13 percent, non-agricultural 5.55 percent).
The census that followed after 1951, pooled all the dependents of all the divisions of economic activity into one class defined as non-workers. Consequently the data after 1951, do not help to indicate separately the degree of dependence existing in agricultural and non-agricultural activities
of workers.
The 1961 Census adopted a different definition of workers and their economic classification which was adhered to some extent in 1971. Hence, an exact comparison with earlier data is not possible. The comparative position with the data of 1971 is given below:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Year  Total               Total number     Percentage of workers to total Population
          population      of workers           -------------------------------------------------------------
                                                          Agricultural     Non-Agricultural    Total worker
                                                          workers           workers                   ------------------
                                                                                                                   District   U.P.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1961    25,65,182       11,33,008            33.7                  6.7              44.1           39.1
1971    30,38,177         9,83,934            27.4                  4.9              32.3           30.9
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
A cursory reading will thus indicate an alarming decrease in the working population indicating unemployment even amongst the already employed persons of 1961. This apparent anomaly is perhaps easily explained by the concept and definition of worker adopted in 1961. Census allowed many persons to be included in the category of workers who were not so treated in 1971 census. In 1961 as little as one hour's work in day entitled a person to be treated as worker and a women whose time was utilized basically in household chores was defined as worker even if she took food in the field and tended the cattle. But in the census of 1971, a man or woman who was engaged primarily in house-hold duties such as cooking for own household and even when such a person helped in the family economic activity though not as a full time worker he was not treated as a worker and was categorised as non-worker. Hence the different workers have now been classified into nine major divisions, the basis of the classification being those economic activities which were similar in respect of process, the raw material, and the products. The nine divisions of workers and the number of persons engaged in them in 1971 are as follows;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number and                    Males         Females      Total       Percentage     Percentage
Name of division                                                                  to total           to total
                                                                                              workers         population
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I  Cultivators                      4,30,904        28,077     4,58,981         46.6          15.1
II Agricultural
   labourers                        2,56,880     1,15,578     3,72,458         37.9          12.3
III Live-stock,
    Forestry, fishing
    hunting, plantations
    orchards and allied
    activities                          3,328             462            3,790          0.4           0.1
IV Mining and 
   quarrying                             211              37              248           0.0           0.0
V Manufacturing,processing
  servicing and repairs:
(a) House hold industry          17,977          2,699         20,676        2.1           0.7
(b) Other than house
    hold industry                      25,280         1,015          26,295        0.3           0.1
VII Trade and Commerce      26,539            856          27,395        2.8           0.9
VIII Transport, storage
    and communications           22,825            188          23,013        2.3           0.7
IX  Other services                    44156         3,958          48,114        4.9           1.6
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total workers                    8,31,004      1,52,930      9,83,934       100           32.3
Non-workers                      7,49,586     13,04,657    20,54,243         -            67.7
Total population               15,80,590     14,57,587    30,38,177         -           100.0
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As will be observed above all the non-workers have been grouped together in one single class though they have been classified in the census as follows:
(a) Full time students
(b) Those attending to household duties
(c) Dependents and infants
(d) Retired persons and rentiers
(e) Persons of independent means
(f) Beggars and vagrants
(g) inmates of penal, mental and charitable institutions
(h) Others

                       General Level Of Prices And Wages

Prices

Unfortunately there are no extant records of prices in this district prior to 1857, with the exception of a few scattered references. In the ten years prior to 1860 the cheapest rates were those of 1854, when wheat was sold at 28 seers to the rupee, rice at 26.6, barley at 43.9 and gram at 40.7 seers. From 1861, onwards official returns are available, and from these some idea may be obtained of the general tendency of prices by taking averages of decennial period, so as to eliminate as far as possible the effects of abnormal seasons and unusual influences. From 1861 to 1865, prices remained lower than at any subsequent period, the averages in the case of the principal food-grains being 26.19 seers of common rice, 25.93 of wheat, 37.29 of barley, 23.95 of arhar and 28.61 of gram. The following decade showed a great rise, though famines in 1868-69 and 1873-74 had a very marked effect on the averages which were 18.93 seers for rice, 17.89 for wheat, 25.85 for barley, 18.55 for arhar and 22.28 for gram.

In the decade 1866-1875 the prolonged scarcity sent prices up to famine levels. By 1880, however, the market recovered and two or three years of unusual plenty occurred, which lowered the prices to the level of 1865. The averages for the decade ending 1885 were consequently somewhat lower than in the preceding period, rice being sold for 17.5 seers, wheat for 18.18, barley for 29.6, arhar for 19.15 and gram for 24.52 seers to the rupee. In 1886 prices rose everywhere and the year marked an epoch in their history. For though the reasons had never been satisfactorily explained, it seemed that various causes produced a simultaneous effect, such as the extension of communications, the consequent development of export trade, and the fall in the price of silver. Whatever the reasons be, the result was that rates took a decided step upwards, from which they never descended in subsequent years. The practical effect of this change was the raising of the normal level and in later years the only variations were those due to famine and the state of the external markets. Because of the development of the railways system, the Gorakhpur rates become practically identical with those prevailing throughout Uttar Pradesh, the cost of railway freight alone differentiated various localities. From 1886 to 1895 with the bad seasons in the second half of the decade, the average were 14.67  seers for rice, 13.92 for wheat, 20.75 for barley, 19.7 for arhar and 20.43 for gram. The next ten years opened with a famine during which the rates rose to an unprecedented height. They remained high till 1900, owing to scarcity but the next four years witnessed a great improvement as the result of the magnificent harvests that were reaped throughout the country, though at the same time they never fell to the rates prevailing before 1886. In 1905 an extensive failure of the Rabi crops, caused a stringency in the market, the average for the ten years ending 1905 was 13.02 seers of rice, 13.93 of wheat, 19.58 of barley, 13.37 of arhar and 16.9 of gram to the rupee. Subsequent seasons were so unfavourable that the prices rose rapidly. In 1907-08 the rates were far higher than ever known by then in spite of the relative immunity of the district from famine. The rise in the past 45 years was sufficiently remarkable, which amounted on the whole to 18 percent from 1861 to 1885 and to 46 per cent from the former year to 1905, an enhancement which cast an immense effect on the condition of the district especially in the landowners and tenants who derived incalculable benefit from the increased value of their produce. Because of the excellent harvests of 1908 and following years prices again fell reaching low level in 1911, the prices being 13.06 seers for wheat, 10.37 seers for rice (common), 21.56 seers for gram and 12.75 seers for arhar dal , but rose sharply thereafter. In 1913, they were higher than ever before. The average for the 10 years ending 1915 was 9.46 seers for rice, 10.96 seers for wheat, 15.74 for barley, 10.79 for arhar, and 13.96 for gram to the rupee. Thus in these last ten years prices had risen by 21 percent.

With the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, a series of changes in prices including a considerable rise in the cost of food-grains were witnessed in the succeeding years. In 1916, the price level higher by 47 percent, in 1928 it was higher by 100 per cent over the rates prevailing in 1911.

The worldwide economic depression was started in 1930 and the years that followed were continued and severe depression. There was some recovery in 1932 but that was only seasonal and prices began to fall again in 1933 consequent on a good monsoon. The price level in 1934 went down by about 38 percent and 15 percent as compared to those of 1928 and 1916 respectively. Prices remained low in 1935 and in the first half of 1936. There was an upward trend in the next half and the prices were steady in 1937 and at a higher level than in 1936. By 1939 they registered a rise of nearly 25 percent over those prevalent in 1934.

After the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 there was a steep rise in prices. The rise was largely due to speculation and profiteering but other factors like the holding back of stocks in anticipation of future shortage, contributed in no small measure to maintain and even to advance the high level reached. At the beginning of 1940 prices control measure which had been put into operation on the outbreak of the war were vigorously enforced. These measures included the fixation of price(with modification from time to time) by the district officer and the institution of prosecution to check profiteering and dealers in food-grains were licensed. Even then the prices continued to go up and it was experienced that effective control of prices was not possible without control over supplies. Therefore district reserves were maintained and to ease the situation a partial rationing scheme was introduced in 1943 for the poorer section but the markets were allowed to function normally. By bearing a free market the possibility of a breakdown in supplies was avoided. The availability of certain food-grains at subsidised rates from the government shops induced the dealers to reduce their own prices and bring out their hoarded stocks.

It was expected that with the end of the War and enforcement of several price control measures by the government, the general food situation would ease but it did not. The price level in 1944 was higher by 344 percent than that of 1911 and by about 184 percent than that of 1939. The period between 1943 and July 1952 was that of rationing and controls. After this period markets were allowed to function normally and restriction on movements of food-grains were also withdrawn and the statutory maximum prices, prescribed for various food-grains, were also given up. The system of issuing food-grains to ration card holders from ration shops was, however, continued in order to arrest any rising trend.

Expectation of an immediate fall in the prices of food-grains and easing of the food situation as a result of the relaxation of controls from July were not realised. On the contrary prices of nearly all food-grains went up appreciably. But by the end of 1953, prices tended to come down. The normal forces of demand and supply once again started adjusting the prices and the withdrawal of government with all its financial resources from the market had its effect on softening the prices. The cultivators was not sure of getting a fixed maximum prices for his grain nor was the trader assured of earning a fixed commission on the grains supplied by him. The nervousness of the cultivator and the trader only led to a further decline in prices. As a result thereof the downward trend which had started in 1953 could not be arrested and by 1955 prices had fallen by about 56 percent for wheat, 53 percent for rice, 57 percent for gram and 48 per cent for arhar, as compared with those prevailing in 1950.

This posed a new problem for the government. The falling trend was required to be checked in the interest of the overall economy and in the interest of the cultivator who needed being assured of a minimum price so that he could stick to his land. The government had to take measures in 1953-54 to support prices. They, therefore, again showed a gradual upward trend. The available average monthly wholesale prices for certain years from 1951 are given below :
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Year                                  Prices in Rs per maund (or 37.3)
              --------------------------------------------------------------------
              Wheat                         Gram                          Rice

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1951           29.25                        20.50                         36.00
1955           12.80                         8.80                         16.80
1960           19.00                        16.00                         22.00
1965           29.10                        23.00                         42.69
              (77.70)*                     (61.62)*                    (114.00)*

                     * Rupees per quintal
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The average yearly retail prices from 1969 to 1973 were as follows :

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Year                                  Prices in Rs per Kg.
              ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Wheat                         Gram                   Rice (Common)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1969           1.02                          0.87                     1.33
1970           0.92                          1.04                     1.51
1971           0.96                          1.09                     1.53
1972           1.00                          1.17                     1.60
1973           1.28                          1.83                     1.83
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The average retail prices of certain other essential commodities, obtaining in Gorakhpur town in 1973, were as follows :

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Commodity                                          Prices in Rs per Kg.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dal arhar                                                 2.14
Ghee                                                     19.00
Jaggery                                                    1.85
Fire-wood                                               0.15
Mustard Oil                                             7.36
Sugar                                                      3.57
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Wages

    About the close of the nineteenth century the wages that ruled throughout the district were much lower than those prevailing in the western parts of the State, the scale resembled that of the eastern districts generally. From 1858 to 1868 the remuneration of field-labourers varied from six to eight pice daily, although the cash wages were relatively rare. During next decade the higher rate generally prevailed, though from 1878 to 1908 more usually labourers were paid partly in cash and party in grain. The general average for the district remained almost the same till 1908 though in rare instance more was given, while payment in grain was of approximately the same value varying from  two to three seers. In practice cash remuneration took the from of the so called Gorakhpur pice and amounted to 10 to 15 of these coins daily the equivalent in government currency being two and three annas. The rate depended on the locality and the natural of the work performed. The wages were generally higher in the north, the average being three annas a day for labour was less abundant here. The rates in the case of skilled labourers in the rural areas varied from Rs 6 to Rs 9 per month. In the city the wages were much higher. A similar rise was also noticed in the case of household servants. In 1907, the average monthly wages of a sweeper was Rs 3 and a syce Rs 5 which increased to Rs 5 and Rs 7 respectively about 1920. The foremost reason for this increase was the rise in price which culminated in the scarcity of 1907-08. The increase of emigration owing to higher wages obtainable in Bengal and elsewhere, the ravages of plague and increased facilities of transport also tended to increase wages in this district.

    A comparative survey of rural wages for skilled and unskilled labour for certain years from 1906 to 1973 is given in the following statement :
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Year                                Wages in Rs per day
         ---------------------------------------------------------------------
                 Unskilled labour                          Skilled labour
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1906                  0.09                                       0.21
1911                  0.09                                       0.25
1916                  0.10                                       0.36
1928                  0.14                                       0.53
1934                  0.10                                       0.33
1939                  0.14                                       0.33
1944                  0.31                                       1.00
1950                  0.78                                       1.64
1955                  1.00                                       2.00
1960                  2.00                                       4.00
1965                  2.50                                       5.00
1970                  3.00                                       4.50
1973                  3.50                                       6.00
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
After the First World War, there occurred a marked all round rise in wages which was most marked in 1928. The fall after 1930, which was due to worldwide economic depression, was reflected in the wages obtaining in 1934, after this wages began to rise and by 1944 those for unskilled and skilled labour had recorded a rise of 100 and 205 percent respectively, over those of 1939. This abnormal rise may be attributed to the out break of the Second World War in 1939, and the consequent rise in prices wages thereafter did not down and continued to move upwards.

In 1934, various agricultural occupation such as weeding, reaping, transplantation and ploughing ranged from Rs 2.75 to Rs 3.50 per day, the working hours being eight.

Wages in urban areas were, as usual, higher than those in the rural areas. In Gorakhpur town, wages prevailing in 1974 are given below in respect of certain occupations :
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Occupation                 Unit of quotation              Average wages in Rs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Gardener                        Per month                                      190.00
Chowkidar                    Per month                                       145.00
Domestic servant      (a) Per month, without food                   80.00
                                 (b) Per month, with food                      40.00
Herdsman                      Per month, per cattle                          5.00
Motor Driver                 Per month,                                      200.00
Truck driver                   Per month                                       250.00
Scavenger                      Per month for a house with one
                                      latrine for one clearing per day           5.00
Casual labour                Per day                                              4.50
Carpenter                       Per day                                              7.00
Blacksmith                     Per day                                              7.00
Midwife                  (a)  For a boy                                         25.00
                               (b) For a girl                                           20.00
Barber                     (a) Per shave                                            0.30
                               (b) Per hair-cut                                         0.70
Porter                           Per 40 kg.of a load carried for             1.00
                                    a km.
Wood-cutter                Per 40 kg. of wood turned into            0.50
                                    fuel
Tailor                       (a) Per man's cotton shirt (full
                                     sleeves)                                             2.50
                                (b) Per woman's cotton shirt (short
                                      sleeves)                                            2.00
                                (c) Per woolen suit                                75.00
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


General Level Of Employment

In 1971, the number of agricultural workers was 8,31,439, cultivators and agricultural labourers being 4,58,981 and 3,72,458 respectively. The number of persons engaged in activities connected with livestock, forestry fishing, hunting, plantations, orchards and allied activities was 3,790 and in mining and quarrying 248. As many as 2,964 persons were engaged in activities connected with building of roads, bridges, tunnels, etc., and trade and commerce offered employment to 27,395 persons and transport storage and communications to 23,013. The services engaged 48,114 persons, household industry 20,676 persons and industries other than household 26,295 persons.

Employment Trends

The statement given below shows employment trends in both the private and the public sectors during the years 1969-73. The date relate only to those establishments which were covered by the enquiry conducted by the employment exchange authorities :
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Year                No of establishments               No of employees
               ----------------------------------------     ---------------------------------
                Private        Public       Total      Private     Public    Total
                sector         sector                       sector       sector
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1969         240             211                451       14746       53105        67851
1970         243             227                470       15159       53342        68501
1971         247             243                490       15094       56072        71166
1972         279             281                560       16148       57473        73621
1973         274             291                565       16279       59310        75589
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The number of persons employed in 1972 and 1973 given in the foregoing statement when further split up according to nature of their work presents the following picture :
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nature of activity      No of reporting                         No. of employees
                                   establishment                  1972                             1973
                                    ---------------              -----------------------------     -------------------------------
                                    1972        1973     Private    Public  Total      Priv.       Public    Total
                                                                 Sector     Sector                 Sector   Sector
                  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Agriculture, livestock       10         12             -             2189      2189       -          2283        2283
hunting and fishing
Mining and quarrying         1          1              -              313        313       -            597          597
Manufacturing                  72        69           9569          2549     12118     9523      2622       12145
Construction                    29        29               -            3354      3354       -          3575          3575
Electricity Gas, water         7          8               -            2258      2258       -          2359          2359
and sanitary services
Trade and commerce       77         80            686           937       1623      657        1311        1968
Transport and storage      40         42              27       22480    22507         26     22195       22221
Services ( public,
legal, medical etc.)          324       324           5866       23393    29259      6073    24368       30441
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                               560       565         16148      57473     73621    16279   59310        75589
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Employment of Women

The trend in employment of women workers is given in the following statement which shows the number of women employed in the private and public sector during the years ending December 1973 :
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              No. on December 1973
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

No. of reporting establishments                                              565
No. of women employees in public sector                             2656
No. of women employees in private sector                              609
Total number of women employees                                       3265
Percentage of women employees in private sector to total
number of employees in that sector                                         3.7
Percentage of women employees in Public sector to total
number of employees in that sector                                        4.5
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The proportion of women workers in different spheres in the quarter ending December, 1973, was as follows :

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sphere                                                       Percentage
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Education                                                      62.5
Medical and public health                                24.3
Transport                                                         5.8
Manufacturing                                                  2.3
Construction                                                    0.2
Trade and coomerce                                        0.4
Services etc.                                                    4.0
Electricity, gas and water                                  0.5
------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Total                                                     100.00
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Unemployment Trends

The number of men and women who sought employment in different spheres during the year ending December, 1973, were as follows :
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Educational Standard               Men     Women        Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Post-graduate                                   407             21             428
Graduate                                        2,737            28           2,765
Intermediate/ Under graduate          6,801           44            6,845
Matriculate                                    7,470            89            7,559
Below matriculate including          11,385          827          12,212
illiterate
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                           28,800         1,009        29,809
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Vacancies notified to the employment exchange during the quarter ending December, 1973, by the Central Government were 101, by the State Government 670, quasi government 77,(State 70 and Central 7), local bodies 30, and private sector 33.

The district experienced shortage of civil engineer chemists, experienced mechanical engineer, stenographer, (English and Hindi), general mechanics, experienced electrician, overseer, physician, health inspector, trained accountant, fitter and pressman. Persons without previous experience of training and technician trainees of industrial training institutes are surplus to requirement.


The district has a surplus labour force which migrates to other deficient areas for employment.

Employment Exchange

The employment service came into being in the wake of post-war demobilisation and a need was felt for a machinery that would satisfactorily handle orderly re-absorption of demobilised personnel in civil life. Accordingly an employment exchange was established at Gorakhpur in January, 1946. Till the end of 1946, employment services facilities were available only to demobilised service personnel and discharged war workers. In 1947, at the time of partition of the country, the employment exchange was also called upon to deal with the resettlement of a large number of persons who were displaced as a result of partition. In response to growing demand, the scope of service was gradually extended and by early 1948, employment exchange was thrown open to all categories of workers. Its administration was taken up by the State government with effect from November 1956.

The work of employment exchange is divided into different sections. Besides the employment market information and vocational guidance units, the registration and submission work is divided into three sections, viz., the clerical, technical and unskilled. The registration of all categories of women is done separately in the women section. Each section is under the charge of an assistant employment officer.

The introduction of the Compulsory Notification of Vacancies Act, 1959 and the Apprentice Act of 1961 has widened the scope of the employment service. Vocational guidance and occupational and training information has been an added attraction normal registration and placement activities. The  employment exchange was also made responsible to recruitment of labour for the State labour group at Gurma Camp attached to the Churk Cement Factory since  October 1964. A university employment information and guidance bureau is also  operating under the employment exchange at Gorakhpur.

The following statement would show the amount of assistance rendered  by the employment exchange during the year 1969-73 :
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Year     Vacancies notified   No. of persons     No. on 'live   Persons provided
             by employers            registered for      register'       with employment
                                                employment
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1969             2619                        20741                   10016             2093
1970             2634                        24021                   15673             1880
1971             2960                        31065                   17562             2411
1972             2971                        29863                   29713             1798
1973             3139                        30312                   29809             2867
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Employment market information scheme was introduced by the exchange in December, 1958, for public sector only and its jurisdiction was extended to private sector also in 1959. Under the scheme an effort is made to find out quarterly from public and private sectors establishments, the number of persons employed by them and the number of posts under them that fell vacant during the quarter and the type of jobs for which supply of qualified candidates was inadequate.

In order to give assistance to an individual in solving problems related to occupational choice, a vocational guidance unit was established by the State Government in the employment exchange, Gorakhpur in 1960. During the year 1973, about 5700 candidates attended group guidance talks, 6126 individuals sought guidance, 578 candidates were placed in training and 232 were placed in apprenticeship, special guidance were given to 1658 persons of  the Scheduled Castes, 288 ex-service men, 309 women and 23 physically handicapped  persons.

Central Labour Depot

The Central labour depot at Gorakhpur is functioning under the  administrative control of the director of employment exchanges, New Delhi, and  under the immediate charge of a deputy director (labour). The Depot was established in March, 1942, at Gorakhpur on a small  scale. Later it developed rapidly and soon grew into big organisation supplying about 50,000 labourers annually all the state of country. It also looks after labour welfare work.

National Planning And Community Development

Before Independence the subject of rural development and planning received little attention and whatever efforts were made in this direction were merely the outcome of political expediency and confined to such activities as sanitation and expansion of agricultural and irrigational facilities to the villages. When the first Congress government came into office in, 1937, a scheme for rural development was adopted in certain villages of the district. The scope of the scheme was expanded and a rural development association was formed at the district level, having a nominated non-official chairman and a subdivisional magistrate as secretary with functions more or less advisory. The work related largely to rural hygiene, construction of roads, establishment of libraries, construction of panchayat ghar (house) and night school for adults, and allied development activities. All rural development programmes were almost given up when the Congress government went out of office in 1939. In 1947, the work was again taken up when the rural development department was merged with the co-operative department and the rural development association replaced by the district development association with a non-official as chairman and the district co-operative officer as its secretary.


The development activities received proper attention only after the setting up of the planning commission of India in 1950. In the First five-year Plan(1951-56) agriculture, including irrigation and power, were given top priority, funds having been allocated accordingly. In 1952, the district development association was replaced by the district planning committee, having the district magistrate as its chairman and the district planning officer as its secretary. Its role was, however, advisory. A number of subcommittees were also framed for the preparation and execution of development programmes.

In the district the first community development block was opened on  October 2, 1953, at Nichlaul followed by another at Chargawan on January  26,1955.

The scope of the Second Five-year Plan was engaged to include  industrialization and it was decided that the whole district would be divided into development blocks for the implementation of the various Plan schemes. In the second half of the Second five-year Plan the Antarim Zila Parishad (now the Zila Parishad) was formed in 1958 by amalgamating the district planning committee and the district board. A three-tier structure of rural self-governing bodies was adopted from December, 1963, for the successful implementation of the planing and development programmes-the village panchayat  at the villages level, the kshettra Samiti at block level and the Zila Parishad at the district level. For the co-ordinated execution of the different Plan schemes the resources of the agriculture, co-operative, animal husbandry, panchayat raj and some other departments and organisations were pooled and put under the control of the district planning officer (now designated as district development officer). The district was divided into 31 development blocks. Some particulars about these blocks of the district are given in the Statement A appended at the end of the chapter, all of which being in post-stage II.

The Kshettra Samiti is responsible for all the development activities within a block. The block development officer is the executive officer of the Kshettra Samiti. He is assisted by a number of assistant development officers for agriculture, animal husbandry, co-operatives, panchayats, etc. At the village level, there is a multipurpose worker designed as gram sewak (village level worker) to work for all the development departments. During the First Five-year Plan period the stress was on people's participation in different activities. Improvement of village roads, drainage and pavements was done by Shramdan (voluntary labour).Improved methods of agriculture and use of compost manure were also introduced. Tube-wells and  other facilities for irrigation were augmented.

The aim of Second Plan was to increase national income by 25 percent and to reduce unemployment. During this period branches of different co-operative societies were established to enable the farmers to get proper value of their produce and a land development bank also started functioning to make available to farmers loans on easy terms. In the field of agriculture, schemes relating to soil conservation, Japanese method of paddy cultivation, expansion of and training in the use of improved agricultural implements, and  use of chemical and green manure were taken up.

The Third Five-year Plan was conceived as the first stage of a decade or more of intensive development leading to a self-reliant and self-generating economy. It sought to ensure a minimum level of living to every family while narrowing economic and social disparities. Some special programmes, much as intensive methods of wheat and paddy cultivation, crop protection measures, availability of improved varieties of seeds, increase in double-cropped area were taken in hands. This all resulted in substantial increase in production. Schemes for the development of live-stock, poultry and fisheries were  undertaken.

A period of three annual Plans intervened between the Third Plan and the Fourth Plan which commenced from April 1, 1966, the broad objectives of these Plans being the following :
       (i)  A Growth rate of 5 percent in the agricultural sector and 8 to 10 percent in industry.
       (ii) 6.9 per cent annual rate growth in production of food-grains to achieve self-sufficiency.
       (iii) To maximize employment opportunities with the proposed growth rate.
       (iv) To redress imbalances arising from a high rate of population growth and inadequate expansion in agricultural production by bringing the fertility rate to 25 per thousand in shortest possible time.

The implementation of these Five-year Plan schemes has helped in raising the standard of living, providing better wages and living conditions and helping the general economic growth of the district. The growing industrialization side by side with increased agricultural production holds a define promise of ushering in an era of increased prosperity and better  economic condition for the people of the district.

STATEMENT A

Development Block
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tahsil    Name of Block      Date of                     No. of                Population
                                           inauguration   ----------------------------
                                                                    Gram            Nyay
                                                                   Sabhas       Panchyats
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1                    2                           3                   4                  5                      6
----------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------
Bansgaon   Bansgaon               01/04/1956         103             12               91092
    "             Kauriram                01/07/1957          87             11               85367
    "             Barhalganj              01/04/1958          92             10               89539
    "             Belghat                  02/10/1959         107             11               86353
    "             Gola                      02/10/1962         107             10               84730
    "             Gagaha                  02/10/1972          96              10               79145
    "             Khajni      
                  (Rudrapur)              02/10/1972         212            10               93732
                  Uruwa                     02/10/1972         115            11               88983
Gorakhpur  Chargawan               26/01/1955         74              9              119147
    "             Khorabar                01/07/1957           67             8                90138
    "             Sardar Nagar           01/10/1959          69             8                87340
    "             Piprauli                    02/10/1959          77            10               90210
    "             Pipraich                     01/04/1960        83              9               86441
    "             Sahjanwa                 01/04/1961          99            10               83365
    "             Junglekauria             02/10/1962          96            10               81539
    "             Bhathat                    02/10/1972          69             8                88510
    "            Brahmpur                   02/10/1972        79              9               89210
    "             Pali                          02/10/1972        108             11                91418
Mahrajganj Nichlaul                        02/10/1953       99            10             104705
    "            Partawal                    01/04/1956           86              9              99383
    "            Paniara                       01/04/1958         72              9              89219
    "            Mahrajganj                 01/04/1959          74              8               93955
    "            Siswa                        01/04/1962          81              9              96075
    "            Ghughli                   02/10/1972            72              8                89461
    "             Mithaura                    02/10/1972         91             10              97894
Pharenda    Pharenda                   02/10/1956          72              9               78316
    "             Nautanwa                   01/07/1957        99               9            104773
                   (Ratanpura)
    "             Dhani                         02/10/1962         61              8               68103
    "             Lachhmipur                02/10/1962      100               10               83201
    "             Bridgmanganj             02/10/1972         65               8              79591
    "             Campierganj               02/10/1972         61               9             88154
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------

back_ar.gif (1338 bytes)