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MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATION

In 1961, the population of the district was 25,65,182 of which the workers numbered 11,33,008. A study of the occupational structure of the working population reveals that 1,72,390 persons were engaged in miscellaneous occupation. The break up is given below:
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                                                                 Persons            Males               Females
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Public Services                                    10098                9961                137
Educational and Scientific
Services                                              6048                5461                587
Religious and Welfare Services                  554                  486                 68
Medical and health services                    1711                1411                300
Legal Services                                       645                  644                  1
Business Services                                  282                  282                  -
Community Services and trade
Labour associations                                313                 310                  3
Recreation Services                                337                 293                 44
Personal Services                                13795               9515               4280
Unspecified Services                            19372             12472               6900
Mining and quarrying                               132                130                  2
Live-stock, forestry fishing
hunting and plantation, orchards
and allied activities                                8717               6595               2122
Manufacturing                                     62767              44765              18002
Construction                                        3620                3572                 48
Electricity, gas,water and
sanitary services                                  1860                1566                294
Trade and Commerce                           24550              21749               2801
Transport, storage and
Communications                                  16606             16514                 54
Other Services                                       983                968                 15
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Although the population in the following decade rose to 30,38,177 the number of the workers fell to 9,83,934. This was perhaps, due to the changes introduced in the definition of 'worker' in the census of 1971, a direct effect of which was that females engaged in household duties were excluded from the working category. Classification of workers under various categories of economic activity also differed from the previous arrangement and it resulted in a lower enumeration of miscellaneous workers whose number reduced to 1,52,495. Details of various types of workers engaged in miscellaneous occupations can be had from the record of 1971 census.

PUBLIC SERVICES

With the growing responsibility of the government towards planned economic and social development of the country, employment opportunities under the Central and State Governments at different levels have increased considerably. Side by side activities in the public administration of corporations and local bodies have assumed vast dimensions. Some idea may be had of this from the following table.
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Establishments                            No. of establishments        No.of employees
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                                                          1961          1971            1961             1971
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Central Government                   40             43               24308             22178
State Government                     83           149                13691            18458
Quasi-government                      3             23                    255              3015
(Central)
Quasi-government                      2             11                    623              3224
(State)
Local bodies                              7             17                  4822              9587
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Persons in the above services fall under the category of fixed income earners who are hard hit by the rising cost of living. However, comparative position of Central Government employees is much better than those under the employment of the State Government or the local bodies, if fringe benefits are taken into account. Dearness allowance is being paid to all classes of such employees at rates varying in accordance with their salaries. Benefits like, provident fund and medical treatment are available to the government as well as employees of the local bodies, while pension facilities are extended to government servants only. Leave rules have been revised by the government to provide more relief to its temporary employees. Other benefits include granting of advances for the purchases of a conveyance, construction of a house. Residential accommodation at moderate rent is made available in government colonies. House rent allowances is also paid to certain categories of employees. Non-practicing allowance is sanctioned to medical staff holding posts prohibiting private practice. The employees are free to form associations or unions for their welfare and for protection and promotion of their service conditions. The State employees of the district have joined the State Employees' Joint Council or the Ministerial Employees' Association which are affiliated to their respective parent bodies at the State level. The employees of the local bodies have, become members of the Local Authorities Employees' Association  and the employees of the State Road Transport Corporation  are members of the Employees' Road Transport Corporation Joint Council. These are affiliated to the apex organisations at the State legislative.

                                             LEARNED PROFESSIONS

Education

Teaching continues to be regarded a noble profession. For the propagation of literacy and education among the masses vast avenues of employment as teachers have been opened to the educated persons in recent years. In the past teaching was associated with classes of persons whose hereditary profession was teaching children in their private pathshalas or madarsas. It was considered an act of philanthropy and no regular tuition fee was charged. Now things have altered. The modern system of education has completely replaced the traditional class of private pundits and maulvis by regular salaried school teachers.

In 1961, the district had 5,142 teachers including 542 women. Of these 3,104 including 314 women were employed in the primary and middle school, 1001 including 109 women in the secondary school and 315 including 28 women in the degree and post-graduate colleges. In 1973, the number rose to 10,667 including 1,462 women of which 7,502 including 1,032 women were in the primary middle schools and 3,165 including 430 women in the higher secondary schools.

Since 1964, the triple benefit scheme has been extended to State-aided institutions run by local bodies or private managements bringing the advantages of contributory provident fund, compulsory life insurance and pension, including family pension to teachers.

Teachers' wards are entitled to free tuition up to intermediate classes. Needy and disabled teachers can get financial assistance from the National Foundation for Teachers' Welfare Fund and those suffering from tuberculosis can get admission to the Bhowali Sanitorium where certain seats are reserved for them. The teachers of the district have organized themselves into the Gorakhpur University Teachers' Association, the Secondary Teachers' Association and the Primary Teachers' Association for protection and promotion of their service interests.

In 1961, there were 2 authors, 10 editors, one translator, 26 painters, 7 actors, 69 musicians, 41 dancers and 2 artists in the district.

Medicine

In 1961, there were 178 allopathic physicians and surgeons,159 physicians of Ayurvedic, 81 of homeopathy and 76 of other systems. There were 10 dentists. The nurses, pharmacists and other medical and health technicians numbered 890. Of these nurses numbered 193, midwives and health visitors 101, nursing attendants and related workers 136, pharmacists 43, vaccinators 157, sanitation technicians 74 and medical and health technicians 186. In 1973, the State hospitals and dispensaries had on their staff 91 doctors including one homeopath, 2 hakims, 66 midwives, 74 compounders, 103 dais and 26 health visitors.
A branch of the Indian Medical Association was established in the district in 1928 with a membership of 6. The association aims to promote medical and allied services and medical education to improve public health, and to maintain the honour and dignity of the medical profession. It had 124 members on roll in 1973.

Law

In 1961, the jurists numbered 558 of whom 24 were judges and magistrates, 316 legal practitioners and 218 jurists and legal technicians.
In 1973, there were about 1,200 practicing lawyers in the district. They had one in more moharris (Clerk) depending on the size of their clientele. The State Government appoints district government counsels for criminal, civil and revenue work from among qualified legal practitioners to conduct its cases. To lighter their burden some lawyers appointed as panel lawyers and special counsels.
With the influx of new entrants in large numbers, legal practice has become more competitive though not less, remunerative. Some malpractices have also crept in. Still the profession retains its high position in the community. Lawyers lead in almost all   spheres of public activity particularly those connected with social service and politics. Mostly the lawyers practice at the district headquarters as majority of the cases lie in courts located there. The legal practitioners of the district have formed the Bar Association Civil Courts and Bar Association Collectorate, Gorakhpur with their branches operating at the headquarters of tahsils Pharenda, Bansgaon and Maharajganj. The numbers who had joined the various bar associations in the district was about 500 in 1973.

Engineering

In 1961, there were 170 civil engineers including overseers, 90 mechanical engineers, 17 electrical engineers, 2 metallurgical engineers and one chemical engineer. There were 38 architects and 7 surveyors in the district. Engineering services in this district are represented mainly in four branches, the building and roads, the irrigation, the local self-government engineering and the hydel. They have separate divisions of survey, designs and construction. The municipal board Gorakhpur and the Zila Parishad have two engineers each. Several industrial establishment of the district have on their pay roll qualified engineers and diploma holders. Besides these, there are some engineers, architects and surveyors who work privately.

Domestic And Personal Service

Domestic Servants

Domestic servants comprise a fair population of the district. They are necessarily unskilled workers but get lower wages as compared to other members of the labour class. They render whole-time as well as limited or part-time service in houses. Full-time domestic servants are generally employed by well-to-do persons only. Usually these persons are paid remuneration in cash but occasionally receive meals, garments and other amenities also alongwith the cash. They dwell in slums or in out-houses or accommodation provided by their masters and eke out a miserable living. They have no security of job and often change masters. In 1961, there were 4,788 house-keepers, cook, maid servants and related workers of whom 1,213 were cooks and cook-bearers and 3.315 butlers, bearers, waiters and maid servants. There were 110 ayas and nurse-maids and house-keepers. The number of cleaners, sweepers and watermen was 2,529.

Barbers

In the past barbers or 'nais' used to visit families either daily or weekly rendering service but with the advance of time they have opened saloons for this purpose and no longer move from house to house. The number of hair cutting saloon is larger in the urban areas and are manned by more than one person, the owners employing, paid workers. Some barbers attend their customers on roadside payments and save expenditure on establishment, particularly on festival occasions.
Barbers besides rendering face lifting services, also perform traditional duties in rituals and sacraments like marriage, naming and mundan, death, etc., when they are assisted by their women-folk as well. In 1961, there were 1,910 barbers in the district of whom 416 worked in the urban areas.

Washermen

In towns, the washermen still go from house to house collecting dirty linen.They are not so much in demand now in towns owing to high rates and larger use of synthetic fabrics which are easily washable at home and are crease resistant. Conditions obtaining in the villages however, have not undergone any substantial change. In towns laundries and dry cleaning units have become quite popular.
In 1961, there were in the district 6,108 washermen and laundrymen and29 dry cleaners and pressers.

Tailors

In urban areas tailoring is considered to be an art and  needs specialized training. Big tailors use the scissors themselves but employ a number of workers on daily or monthly wages for stitching and sundry jobs. In the rural areas the entire job is done by a single individual. Kurtas, shirts and pyjamas continue to be the chief items of tailored dress in rural areas where the women-folk hardly sew their own or children garments at home. In 1961, there were 2,527 tailors and related workers in the district.

OTHER OCCUPATIONS

Among those pursuing certain other occupations in the district in 1961, there were 13,473 knitters, weavers, spinners and dyers, 2,877 carpenters, joiners and pattern makers, 3,257 hawkers, pedlars and street vendors, 2,719 jewelers, goldsmiths and silversmiths, 2,557 auto-drivers, 2,068 blacksmiths, hammersmiths and foremen, 635 salesmen and shop attendants, 1,754 bakers, confectioners, candy and sweetmeat makers, 1,706 brick layers, plasterers, 1,120 cycle-rickshaw pullers, 1,071 electricians, 796 shoe-makers and shoe repairers, 729 sawyers and wood-mechanics, 721 gardeners, 507 painters and paper hangers, 533 fishermen, 468 animal-drawn vehicle drivers, 336 tobacco preparers, cigar and bidi makers, 235 stone-cutter, 351 loggers and forestry workers, 123 butchers, 115 leather cutters, 101 miners and quarrymen, 99 sewers, darners and embroiderers, 86 photographers, 69 musicians 68 plantation labourers and 51 plumbers and pipe fitters.

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