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PUBLIC LIFE AND VOLUNTARY SOCIAL SERVICE ORGANISATION

EMERGENCE OF PUBLIC LIFE

The public life of the people of this district as elsewhere was neither active nor well organized in the past. The rulers were of the despotic attitude towards their subjects and they hardly did anything constructive to encourage public participation in affair of the State. On the contrary efforts at mobilizing public opinion by a citizen or through institution were nipped in the bud. Those who tried to raise their voice against the policies of the rulers were crushed ruthlessly and so the population remained ignorant of political matters. Sometimes a raja or a zamindar would found a school or orphanage to please their English masters through minor act of philanthropy which used to gain popularity among the masses. It was only with the growing consciousness of the affairs in other parts of the world, brought home through education in foreign languages and fast modes of communication that a political awareness gradually grew up in the people. The political awakening of 1857,  the partition of Bengal in 1905, the Swadeshi movement of 1906, the Home Rule and the Swarajaya movement in succeeding years sponsored by the devoted workers aroused public opinion in such a strong measures that it ultimately led to the Independence of the country in 1947.

POLITICAL PARTIES

The district has branches of several political organisation of national and provincial level. It is difficult to asses the numerical strength of their members which keeps on fluctuating with expediency. The major political parties in the district are the Indian National Congress, the Bhartiya Kranti Dal (now Bharatiya Lok Dal), the Akhil Bhartiya Jan Sangh, the Socialist Party, the Communist Party and the Hindu Mahasabha.

INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

From the results of the various general elections it is clear that the Indian National Congress was a strong and active party in the district. The Congress party contested in all general elections. In the elections of 1952 to the Vidhan Sabha all the 16 seats went to the Congress party. There was a split in the party in 1969 and the two emerging groups came to be known as the Congress (organizational) and the Congress (Ruling). These established their separate branch office in the district also, as elsewhere. Its off shoot organisation is Yuvak Congress which has influence among the youths.

INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (ORGANIZATIONAL)

This party is the result of split in the Indian National Congress. It was headed by Sri Nigalingappa. The party could not do much to influence the people. In 1971, one candidate was set up for the Lok Sabha elections but he was defeated. In the general elections of 1974 to the Vidhan Sabha 15 candidates were set up to contest the elections but none of them was returned.

AKHIL BHARTIYA JAN SANGH

The Akhil Bhartiya Jan Sangh is the second important party in the district. It also contested all the general elections for Vidhan Sabha as well as for the Lok Sabha seats. But it could get only two seats in 1967 and one seat in 1974 for the Vidhan Sabha. For the Lok Sabha seat it never succeeded. It has two youth organisation namely Vidhyarthi Parishad and Bhartiya Yuva Sangh, having influence in student community.

BHARTIYA KRANTI DAL

The Bhartiya Kranti Dal later known as the Bhartiya Lok Dal is the third influential party of the district wielding influence among farmers. Though it could not get any seat in Lok Sabha from the district but in 1969 and 1974 general elections to the Vidhan Sabha, the party won 3 and 4 seats respectively.

The parties participating once only in the general elections have been Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party, and the Uttar Pradesh Revolutionary Socialist Party in 1952: the Uttar Pradesh Sikh Pratinidhi Board and the Mazdoor Parishad in 1969; the Shoshit Samaj Dal, the Akhil Bhartiya Lok Tantrik Dal and the Muslim League in 1974. These parties could not make a head way so far.


REPRESENTATION OF DISTRICT IN STATE LEGISLATURE

Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly)

For the general elections to the Vidhan Sabha in 1952, the district was divided into 13 constituencies, 10 single-member and three double seated ones having one seat reserved for the Scheduled Caste candidate. The single member constituencies were those of Bansgaon(south-East). Bansgaon (Central), Bansgaon (East), cum-Gorakhpur (South), Gorakhpur (Central), Gorakhpur (South-East), Pharenda (South), Gorakhpur (West), Pharenda (Central), Pharenda (North), Maharajganj (North) and the double seated constituencies were Bansgaon (South-West), Gorakhpur (North-East) and Maharajganj (South). The following statement gives the relevant data concerning the assembly elections of 1952.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Party/Independents                       Contestants       Seats       Valid Votes
                                                                          won           polled

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bhartiya Jan Sangh                           7                      ...            33,826
Hindu Maha Sabha                            5                      ...            12,862
Indian National Congress                   16                     16          2,90,366
Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party                 16                      ...            48,791
Ram Rajya Parishad                           3                      ...             5,830
Socialist Party                                 15                      ...           36,828
U.P. Revolutionary Socialist Party         4                      ...             5,203
Independents                                  41                     ...            75,310
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                            107                    16         5,09,016
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

On the eve of the general election of 1957, the constituencies were delimited in 1956 and the district was divided into 9 single-member constituencies of Tilpur, Binaikpur, Pharenda (West), Pharenda (East), Gorakhpur, Maghar, Maniram, Bhawapar, Chillupar and 3 double-member constituencies each with one seat reserved for the Scheduled Caste candidates Maharajganj, Pipraich and Bansgaon.

The following statement gives the number of candidates set up, seats won and votes secured by each contesting party in Assembly elections of 1957 :
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Party/Independents                   Contestants    Seats      Valid Votes
                                                                  won         polled
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bhartiya Jan Sangh                          9             ...             27,730
Communist Party of India                  5             ...             57,267
Indian National Congress                  15            11          3,02,000
Praja Socialist Party                        11            ...             54,826
Ram Rajya Parishad                         2             ...             19,964
Independents                                 1             4            2,57,091
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                             73           15          7,18,878
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Before general elections of 1962, the constituencies again underwent delimitation and 15 single-member constituencies were carved out, with seats in three constituencies of Dhuriapar, Jangaha and Maharajganj being reserved for the Scheduled Caste candidates only. The 12 general seats were Bansgaon, Chillupar, Bhawapar, Pipraich, Gorakhpur, Maniram, Maghar, Pharenda(West), Shyam Deurwa, Binaikpur and Tilpur.

The following statement shows the number of candidates set up, seats won and votes secured by each contesting party in the Assembly elections of 1962.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Party/Independents              Contestants    Seats Won   Valid Votes Polled
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bharatiya Jan Sangh                11                     -                 43218
Communist Party of India           5                      -                17444
Hindu Maha Sabha                  11                      1                81917
Indian National Congress          15                     11              214896
Praja Socialist Party                13                      1                45941
Ram Rajya Parishad                  4                       -                  3868
Socialist Party                        15                      2              120600
Independents                         14                      -                36904
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total                                88                    15              5,64,788
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The constituencies were delimited again in 1966 for the general elections of 1967. The number of constituencies remained the same, 15 single member with three constituencies of Dhuriapar, Jhangaha, and Maharajganj being reserved for the Scheduled Caste candidates and the remaining 12 were reconstituted into Bansgaon, Chillupar, Kauriram, Pipraich, Gorakhpur, Maniram, Sahjanwa, Paniara, Pharenda, Laxmipur, Siswa and Shyam Deurwa. The following statement shows the number of candidates set up, seats won and votes secured by each contesting party in the Assembly election of 1967 :
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Party/Independents                     Contestants    Seats Won          Valid Votes Polled
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bhartiya Jan Sangh                                 13             2                      1,02,490
Communist Party of India                           4             ...                       25,387
Communist Party of India(Marxist)               3             ...                       15,043
Indian National Congress                          15             6                      2,02,516
Praja Socialist Party                                10             2                         61,072
Republican Party of India                           5             ...                          5,811
Samyukta Socialist Party                          12              3                      1,25,545
Swatantra Party                                      9              ...                          8,918
Independents                                        33              2                       1,36,028
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total                                         104            15                  6,82,810
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Following the President's rule in the State which was imposed on the 25th February, 1968 a mid-term poll was held in February, 1969, with the contituencies remaining the same as in 1967.

The following statement shows the number of candidates set up, seats won and votes secured by each contesting party in the mid-term Assembly elections of 1969:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Party/Independents                          Contestants   Seats won  Valid votes polled
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bhartiya Jan Sangh                                     14           ...                96,897
Bhartiya Kranti Dal                                      15           3               1,40,415
Communist Party of India                              2            ...               10,385
Communist Party of India (Marxist)                 1            ...                 3,645
Hindu Maha Sabha                                       9            1                51,699
Indian National Congress                             15            8              2,31,688
Mazdoor Parishad                                        2           ...                    833
Muslim and other Minority Federation              1            ...                 1,309
Praja Socialist Party                                    5            1                 37,903
Republican (Ambedkerite)                             1            ...                 4,126
Republican Party of India                              6            ...               11,101
Samyukta socialist Party                             13             2               82,942
Socialist Party                                            4            ...                5,387
Socialist Unity Centre                                  1            ...                1,710
Swatantra Party                                         4            ...                3,713
Independents                                             8            ...               32,899
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Total                                                101          15           7,28,542
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

On October 1, 1970, the President's rule was again imposed in the State as the then chief minister of the Bhartiya Kranti Dal-Congress coalition refused to resign when the Congress withdrew its support. The President's rule was revoked on October 18 and the Samyukta Vidhayak Dal ministry was sworn in on October 18, 1970. This government did not last long and in the wake its collapse on April 3, 1971 the Congress government came to power. Two years later, the Chief Minister, though commanding a comfortable majority in the Assembly, submitted the resignation of his council of ministers to the governor on June 12, 1973, clearing the way for President's rule in the State again for the third time since the Independence which ended in November 1973, with Congress government taking the office.

The popular government returned to power again through the general elections held in February, 1974. The district was divided into 15 constituencies namely Gorakhpur, Bansgaon, Dhuriapar, Chillupar, Kauriram, Maniram, Sahjanwa, Paniara, Pharenda, Pipraich, Laxmipur, Siswa Bazar, Mundera Bazar, Maharajganj, Shyam Deurwa, with Bansgaon, Mundera Bazar and Mahrajganj being reserved.

The statement given below indicates the number of candidates set up seats won, and valid votes secured by each contesting party in the general elections of 1974 :
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Party / Independents              Contestants    Seats won    Valid votes polled
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Akhila Bhartiya Rashtriya                        1              ---                   2938
Samaj Lok Tantrik Dal
Bharitya Jan Sangh                               13               1               1113014
Bhartiya Kranti Dal                                15               4                 197985
Communist Party of India                        1               1                   16799
Communist Party of India (Marxist)           1               -                     2334
Congress (Organisational)                      15               -                   61276
Hindu Maha Sabha                                 3               1                   44305
Indian National Congress                       14               7                  300460
Indian Union Muslim League                     1                -                      315
Ram Rajya Parishad                                1               -                     1225
Republican Party of India                         6               -                     9425
Shoshit Samaj Dal                                  4               -                     9493
Socialist Party of India                           14               1                  67392
Independents                                       62               -                 101800
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total                                            151              15              928761
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


GENERAL LEGISLATURE

Lok Sabha (House of People)

There were three Lok Sabha Constituencies in the district for the general elections of 1952, Gorakhpur (North), Gorakhpur (Central), and Gorakhpur (South), 11 candidates from various parties had contested. In the general elections of 1957, there were only two Lok Sabha contituencies, of Maharajganj and Gorakhpur, the latter being double member with one seat reserved for the Scheduled Castes. Of  the 13 contesting candidates, two from the Congress and one independent were returned.

In 1962, the district had the 3 reorganized Lok Sabha constituencies of Bansgaon, Gorakhpur and Maharajganj, Bansgaon being reserved for the Scheduled Castes. Of  the 17 contestants all 3 of the Congress party were returned.

In 1967, constituencies remained the same as in 1962. There were 16 contestants, and one each from the Congress and the Praja Socialist Party and one independent were returned.

In the parliamentary general elections of 1971, the constituencies remained the same. There were 17 candidates in the field. Two seats were won by the Congress(R) and one went to an independents.

The following statement shows the number of valid votes polled for each party and the number of seats contested and won by it in the five general elections :

Party/Independents

1952

1957

1962

1967

1971

Contes-

tants

Seats Won

Valid Votes Polled

Contes-

tants

Seats won

Valid votes Polled

Contes-

tants

Seats won

Valid votes Polled

Contes-

tants

Seats won

Valid votes Polled

Contes-

tants

Seats won

Valid votes Polled

Bhartiya Jan Sangh

1

-

12,611

2

-

67,463

2

-

40,455

2

-

89,616

1

-

23,831

Bhartiya Kranti Dal

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

28,556

Congress (N)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

2,958

Hindu MahaSabha

1

-

25,678

-

-

-

2

-

81,218

-

-

-

-

-

-

Indian National Congress

3

3

2,33,689

3

2

3,04,954

3

3

2,36,621

3

1

2,54,803

3

2

3,00,537

Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party

2

-

42,117

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Praja socialist Party

-

-

-

3

-

85,613

3

-

47,455

1

-

5,773

1

-

4,974

Ram Rajya Parishad

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

16.402

-

-

-

-

-

-

Samyukta Socialist Party

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

1,59,388

1

-

27,036

Socialist Party of India

2

-

19,810

-

-

-

3

-

1,14,334

-

-

-

-

-

-

Swatantra Party

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

6,400

2

-

9,160

-

-

-

Independents

2

-

28,405

5

1

2,51,394

2

-

12.019

5

1

1,88,370

7

1

2,22,449

Total

11

3

3,62,370

13

3

7.09,454

17

3

5.52,904

16

3

7,05,110

17

3

6,10,341


NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS

Riaj-ul-Akhbar, an Urdu publication appearing every fourth day, was started in 1881, but in 1907 its office was shifted to Lucknow. The editor Hakim Barham Started another Urdu weekly magazine called the Mushriq in the district in 1906. It had a circulation of 600 copies and included local news and articles on social, relegious and political matters. The same/editor started yet another Urdu weekly (comic paper) entitled the Itr-i-Fitna, which contained contributions in verse and prose with illustrations. It suspended publication in 1898 but was resuscitated in 1903. Thus the district has an early history of journalism and publication and with the growth of literacy, political consciousness and economic activity, the press has become a powerful medium of public expression and there are a number of newspapers and periodicals in different languages to the credit of the district now. The following table gives information about some of the important newspapers, published in the district in 1974 :
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Name of the newspaper                       Periodicity          Year of              Copies in
                                                                           commencement     circulation
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          1                                               2                          3                    4
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

IN HINDI

Hindi Dainik                                       Daily                    1965               7800
Manav Jeevan                                    Bi-weekly             1956               N.A.
Gorakhpur Gazette                              Weekly                1930               1600
Gorakhpur Times                                     ''                    1964               N.A.
Poorvi Awaaz                                         ''                    1966               9500
Poorvi Times                                          ''                    1970               N.A.
Poorvi Sandesh                                       ''                    1967              6202
Sahi Samachar                                        ''                    1966               N.A.
Shatdal                                                  ''                    1972               N.A.
Budh Shumi                                     Fortnightly               1971              3000
Kranti Dhwaj                                           ''                    1974              1500
Arogya                                              Monthly               1947              8458
Arogya Mandir                                          ''                   1967               500
Gyan Sakti                                               ''                  1967              1000
Kalyan                                                     ''                  1926           163909

IN URDU

Ishtarak                                              Weekly                 1966             983
Murad                                                      ''                    1932           1500
Subh-e-Wattan                                         ''                    1961           1800

IN ENGLISH

News letter                                          Monthly               1952           2500

BI-LINGUAL

 Mashriq                                              Weekly                1906           1720
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Other Periodicals

The popular dailies, weeklies and monthlies published outside the district but widely circulated in the district are given in the below :
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Daily                     Weekly              Fortnightly         Monthly
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HINDI
          Aaj                    Dharamyuga             Sarita              Maya
         Hindustan            Saptahik                  Mukta              Chandamama
         Bharat                Hindustan                                        Niharika
         Tarun Bharat                                                            Kadambini
         Navjeewnn                                                               Madhuri
         Nav Bharat Time                                                        Parag
         Swatantra Bharat                                                      Lot Pot

ENGLISH
         The Statesman         Blitz                 Filmfare                Imprint
         Times of India          Current             Star & Style          Life
         Hindustan Times       Link Screin         Caravan               Mirror
         Indian Express         The Observer                                Picturpost
         Northern Indian        The Illustrated                              Readers-Digest
         Patrika                    Weekly of India
         The Pioneer             Sports
         National Herald         Pasttime

URDU
         Milap                        Tej                                             Beeswin Sadi
         Pratap                      Aajkal                                         Shama
         Quami Awaz
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

VOLUNTARY SOCIAL SERVICES ORGANISATIONS

There are a number of voluntary social service organisations in the district looking after the economic and social interests of the people in general and of the Backward Classes in particular. In the past, such institutions depended mainly on the philanthropy and the missionary zeal of the people but with the posting to the district in November, 1955, of an assistant social welfare officer, now designated as the district Harijan and social welfare officer. He look after education of the members of the Scheduled Castes and their welfare, ex-criminal tribes settlement and administration of the Untouchability (offences) Act, 1955 and arranges grants to non-official bodies and social institutions devoted to the cause of members of the Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes, women's welfare schemes, child welfare, uplift of fallen and destitute women and children; orphanages, poor houses, widow's homes, suppression of immoral traffic, etc.

Though voluntary welfare organisations are free to undertake any of their welfare schemes, government has to see that these activities are in harmony with their schemes and policies. This they achieve through the system of grants given to such voluntary organisations and priodic checks to see that the grants are utilized for the specific purposes.

Efforts have been made to co-ordinate the activities of the old voluntary social service agencies and the new governmental institutions. There are a number of non-official social services organisations engaged in the welfare of children, women, youth, destitute, handicapped, and Harijans in the district. A brief account of the more important ones is given below :

Orphanages

The Rai Durga Prasad Bahadur Poor House and Orphanage, Gorakhpur was established in 1901 for the welfare of the orphans and destitutes irrespective of the community to which they belonged. It is a residential institutions.

The Hamidiya waqf State Orphange, Gorakhpur was founded in 1904 with the similar object. A school is run for imparting training in tailoring, carpentry and niwar (cotton-tape) weaving. There were 8 inmates in 1973-74. It received Rs. 1200 as yearly grant from the government in the last two  financial years, 1972-73 and 1973-74.

Institutions for Women's Welfare

The Hindu Abala Ashram, Gorakhpur was established in 1924. It is managed by a committee under the Akhil Bharatiya Hindu MahaSabha. It provides boarding and lodging free of charge to destitute women, training in various crafts such as tailoring, embroidery and knitting is also imparted here, one of the aims of this institution is to arrange marriage of such women who  desire to enter in wedlock and be rehabilitated permanently.

Institutions for Community Welfare

Sahyogi Sewa Mandal, Mian Bazar, Gorakhpur, was established in 1954  to promote the physical, moral and mental well-being of the people in the district. There are 100 active members of the Mandal. It runs an adult   education centre at Golghar, having a library, a reading room and vyayamshala   (gymnasium). On the occasion of fairs the volunteers perform various duties   like, watch and ward, traffic regulation, crowd control, assistance to people,   etc.

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