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Gorakhpur is one of the seven regions into which the State has been divided for the administration of the labour laws and for the implementations of labour welfare schemes. The enforcement of labour laws in the district is looked after by eight labour inspectors, one welfare inspector, one assistant trade union inspector and a chief  investigator under the over- all charge of the regional assistant labour commissioner with headquarters at Gorakhpur. There is also a regional conciliation officer to assist him in conciliation work under the provisions of the U.P. industrial Disputes Act, 1947. Broadly speaking, the socio-economic problems of labourers to working conditions, wages, industrial relations, trade unions, social security and living conditions outside the place of work.

There are 72 registered industrial units in the district, including 5 sugar factories, one railway unit, one fertilizer unit, one jute mill, 2 distilleries and 2 engineering units. The total labour strength in these units is about 20,000. The Government has taken legislative measures to benefit and protect the interest of labourers and their families. The important labour laws operating in the district are briefly discussed below:

The worker's Compensation Act, 1923- According to this Act, payment of compensation in case of death or injury caused to a workman in the course of his employment or as a direct result thereof and also if he contacts a disease rendering him incapable of work as a result of his occupation is incumbent upon an employer. The collector, Gorakhpur, is the ex-officio compensation commissioner under the Act and determines the amount of compensation payable to a workman or his family. The amount of compensation paid from 1969 to 1973 to the dependents of workers killed in accidents is as follows:
Year            No.of fatal               Amount of compensation
                      cases                        paid (in Rs.)
1969                 9                         54,210
1970                 9                         47,058
1971                 7                         41,800
1972                 6                         43,305
1973                 8                         51,661

The Indian Boiler's Act, 1923 :- This Act provides for the registration, transfer and inspection of boilers. It prohibits use of unregistered or uncertified boilers. The district labour inspector enforces the law under the overall control and supervision of the inspector of boilers and factories who has his headquarters at Kanpur.

The Indian Trade Union Act, 1926 :- The Act provides for the registration, suspension and cancellation of trade unions. It empowers the registrar of trade unions, Kanpur, to check the activities of the unions to scrutinize their working and to obtain returns. He and his subordinates guide the trade unions, watch the interests of 'protected workmen' i.e. those officers of registered trade unions who are entitled to certain privileges in respect of service matters including dismissal or discharge from service and other punishments.

The trade unions are corporate bodies which work for the interest of their members and aim at furthering good relations between employers and employees. They strive to improve the economic, moral and social conditions of the labourers and ensure payment of fair wages and provision of healthy living and working conditions and proper medical and educational facilities for their children by the employers.

The Employment of Children Act, 1938 :- The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in workshops and small scale industries manufacturing bidis, carpets, cement, soap, matches, explosive and fireworks or printing, dyeing and weaving cloth or where mica is cut and split, hides are tanned and wood is planked etc. It also prohibits the employment of children below the age of 15 years in any occupation connected with the transport of passengers, goods or mail.

The U.P. Maternity Benefits Act, 1938 :- This Act provides for payment of cash benefits and compulsory period of rest to women workers for specified periods.

The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946 :- The Act is applicable to factories and industrial establishments employing hundred workers or more. The Act regulates the workers' conditions of service e.g. leave, absence, late coming and provides for the supply of drinking water, industrial safety, rest, etc. It requires employers to frame standing orders laying down the terms and conditions of employment which are duly certified by the labour commissioner. Disputes between workers and employers are settled    by the regional conciliation officer and the assistant labour commissioner by negotiation, failing which the regional conciliation board decides the case or sends a report to the government.

The labour inspector ensure the implementation of the law. The employer concerned is liable to prosecution for contravention of its provisions. In 1972-73 there were 145 cases of contravention of the provisions of the labour law.

The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (Act XIV of 1947) and the U.P. Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (U.P. Act XXVIII of 1947) provides for the settlement of industrial disputes and prevention of lock-outs and  strikes. The regional conciliation board first tries to settle the dispute through persuasion and mediation. In case of failure, the dispute is referred to the adjudication machinery in the labour court or the industrial tribunal. Under these Acts the labour inspector is required to conduct inquiries and implement the awards given by the labour court and the industrial tribunal.

The Factories Act, 1948 :- This Act seeks to regulate the working conditions in factories, e.g. fixation of hours of work, leave and wages, safeguards against health hazards, welfare measures like first aid, canteen, supply of cool drinking-water, creches, etc. Every factory employing more than 500 workers is required to have a welfare officer who functions as a liasion officer between the workers and the management and looks after the welfare work in general. Under this Act 235 inspections were made in the year 1972-73 and 41 cases were prosecuted.

The employees' State Insurance Act, 1948 (Act XXXIV of 1948) :- The Employee's State Insurance scheme has been enforced in the district with effect from November 26, 1970. This Act provides certain benefits to employees particularly security to industrial workers against risks of sickness, disablement and injuries sustained during employment. It also gives cash benefits to female workers during maternity periods. It applies to all the factories working with power and employing 20 or more persons. The insured workers and the members or their families receive free medical treatment at the employees' state insurance dispensaries, care and attention during confinement in maternity cases and preventive treatment like vaccination inoculation, X-ray, etc. The two dispensaries at Gorakhpur and Sahjanwa attended to 5200 and 1900 patients, respectively in 1972-73, when 113 injured and disabled persons and 53 dependents of the employees were provided under this scheme.
Act covers 34 factories in the district and 8000 workers stood insured with total premium of Rs. 90,225 paid in 1973-74.

The Minimum Wages Act 1948 :- This Act authorize the State Government to provide for the fixation of maximum working hours, weekly holiday, minimum time-rate, a minimum price-rate, a guaranteed time-rate and overtime rate for different occupations, localities or classes of workers in industries and agriculture. In 1972-73 there were 1754 cases of contravention of this law out of which 111 were prosecuted.

The Working Journalists (Fixation of Rates of Wages) Act, 1958 :- This Act provides for the constitution of a committee which recommends to the Union Government the rates of wages for the working journalists whether by way of modification of the decision of the wage board or otherwise.

The U.P. Industrial establishments (National Holidays) Act 1961 :- This applies to factories and establishments registered under the Factories Act, 1948. It allows national holidays viz.: Independence Day, Gandhi Jayanti and Republic Day to workers on full wages.

The Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961 :- It applies to all transport companies employing five or more persons. Under this Act, the companies and undertaking have to be registered and provide for recreation, rest-rooms, canteens, liveries, medical aid, daily and weekly rest periods and leave and holidays for their workers. The employment of children below the age of 15 years is prohibited under the Act and boys above that are employed only on certificate of fitness from a medical authority.

The Uttar Pradesh Dookan Evam Vanijya Adhisthan Adhiniyam, 1962 :- This Act replaced the U.P. Shops and Commercial Establishments Act, 1947, in December, 1962. It is applicable to workers in shops and  commercial establishments. It regulates their hours work, weekly close days, leave, payment of wages and other conditions of service.

The following statement gives the cases of default detected and their disposal during the last five years :
Year        Number of     Cases prosecuted              Cases        Penalty imposed
                inspections                                                   decided      (in Rs.)

1969        5785                  72                                66              2545
1970        8151                 173                             128              4564
1971        8028                  174                             222            11464
1972        5928                  249                             191            12760
1973        4272                  278                             184            20325


There are two labour welfare centres established in 1959 and 1958 at Mohaddipur and Alinagar respectively. A welfare superintendent is incharge of the centre and is responsible for its day to day activities. The staff at the centre includes a medical officer, a compounder, a midwife, a welfare assistant and a sewing teacher. The centre's activities consist of cultural programmes, sewing and tailoring classes, indoor and out-door games and functions for education and entertainment of the workers and their families.


The oldage pension scheme was introduced in the district on December 1, 1957 to provide help to destitute aged 70 years or more having no means of subsistence whatever and devoid relations bound by custom or usage to support them. It's scope was liberalized in February, 1962 when the definition was extended to include persons with a monthly income of Rs 10 and the age of eligibility was reduced to 65 years. In 1965, a person with a monthly income of Rs 15 was also included in the definition of destitute, and the age of eligibility in the cases of widows, the crippled or the physically infirmed, rendered totally, incapable of earning a living was reduced from 65 to 60 years. The amount of monthly pension was also increased from Rs 15 to Rs 20. The scheme has further been liberalized since January 1972 and the rate of monthly pension has been raised to Rs 30. The benefits of this scheme are not available to beggars, mendicants and inmates of poor houses.

The pension is sanctioned by the labour commissioner after verification of particulars and on the recommendation of the district officer. The following statement gives the number of recipients on December 31, 1971.
Tahsil                                             Number of Pensioners
                                            Men                 Women               Total

Bansgaon                           82                   63                    145
Gorakhpur                        105                    93                    198
Maharajganj                       18                    17                     35
Pharenda                           73                    56                    129
Total                                      278                      229                        507


In pursuance of State Government, policy discourage use of intoxicants by the people a prohibition publicity and social uplift organisation was set up in the district in 1947. Prohibition was scraped in the State on December 1, 1962 as a step to increase the State revenues and to discourage illicit manufacture and sale of liquor. There is a prohibition and uplift committee in the district, with the district magistrate as its president. Members all legislators of the district, presidents and chairman of all local bodies, president of the district bar association, several officers who have wide public dealings and also some nominated members. The purpose of committee is to determine ways and means for minimizing the use of wines. A pracharak has been appointed for this purpose. This committee tries to educate people against the hazards of drinking by organizing meetings, distribution of pamphlets, film shows, etc.


Members of the Scheduled Castes who were considered as belonging to the depressed Classes during the British rule, have been mostly out-castes of the local society, Social workers have always striven to better their lot, but the alien government took little interest in their welfare. A half-hearted beginning was made in 1930 when a scheme was formulated for award of stipends belonging to the Scheduled Castes. However, it was only with the advent of Independence that concrete steps were taken for the amelioration of their lot, and in 1947 the U.P. Removal of Social Disabilities Act was passed which ensured to the members of such castes the unrestricted enjoyment of social and religious liberties. The untouchability (Offences) Act, 1955, came into force in the State in June 1955. It has rendered practice of untouchabilty an offence punishable under the Act. It repealed the corresponding State Act of 1947. The State Government also threw open all avenues of employment to members of the Scheduled Castes and major steps were taken for their adequate representation in services.

In 1944, the upper age limit for recruitment of Scheduled Caste candidates to civil posts was relaxed up to 3 years over the prescribed limit. In 1953, the reservation for Scheduled Castes in government services was further raised from 10 to 18 percent. In 1955, the upper age limit for Scheduled Castes was raised up to 5 years for gazetted posts as had already been non-gazetted posts in 1952. Government keep a watch over the progress in recruitment of the Scheduled Caste candidates to various posts and have time and again, emphasised that the prescribed percentage for filling the posts by Scheduled Castes candidates must be achieved. The Scheduled Castes candidates are given concession in application and examination fees while applying for any post. A voluntary organisation known as the Harijan Sewak Sangh runs three hostels for theScheduled Castes students in the district. The expenditure incurred on scholarship, news paper etc., is borne by the Harijan and social welfare department. The government also grant advances and loans to members of the Scheduled Castes for various purposes, such as, agriculture, industries, construction of houses, sinking or boring of wells, etc. The following statement gives the amount of grants advanced under various schemes during the last three years :
         Scheme                                                          Amount in Rupees
                                                                   1971-72         1972-73          1973-74

Construction and repair of houses          60800            56000             90800
Development of Cottage Industries         25000            62000             61000
Drinking water scheme                         32000            86000              ---
Development of Agriculture                   29500            41500             43000
          Total                                                147300           245500           194800

Free education to all Scheduled Caste students is guaranteed upto the university stage. For this purpose, government disburses liberal stipends and scholarships to all students belonging to the Scheduled Castes.

In 1950, the State Harijan Sahavak Department was set up to formulate and implements scheme for the welfare of numbers of the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Backward classes and criminal Tribes (later known as de-notified tribes). In 1957 a District Harijan Welfare Officer was posted in the district whose designation was changed to Harijan and social welfare officer in 1961, when the Harijan Sahayak and social welfare departments were integrated. His main functions are to watch the interests of the members of the Scheduled Castes and implement the schemes formulated by the government  for their welfare and for amelioration of their lot.


The following two trusts administered by different agencies are continuing in the district:
       Name of Trust                                          Date of                Property
                                                                       establishment      endowed

Mr. Rodes Dharamshalas Trust, Aldopur          9.12.1893              Rs. 1500
Rai Durga Prasad Bahadur Poor                     31.08.1901             Immovable
House Bequest                                                                      Property Only


The following sunni waqfs (trust) in the district are registered with the U.P. Sunni Central Board of waqfs :

Name of waqf                  Date of           Founder               Annual income  Objectives
                                          Foundation                                    (in Rs.)

Imam Bara                   1797-98          Shah Alam Nadir       107773               Charitable
                                                         Shah Gazi
Haji Rasoo Baksh         9.12.1929         Abdul Ali and            15254                       ''
and other                                          others
Waqf K.B.Molvi          17.03.1941         K.M.Molvi                 12056                       ''
Hameed Ullah                                    Hameed Ullah
Waqf Molvi Abdul      waqf by user           -                         6834                         ''
Sheikh jhaoo              15.09.1896        Sheikh Jhaoo            4731                         ''
Masjid Babar Ali         waqf by user       Shah Raknuddin        4126                         ''
Waqf Jama Masjid      waqf by user       K.B.Hameedullah       3805                         ''
                                                          and other
Sheikh Abdul Shakoor     5.6.1917         Mohd. Shakoor         2662                         ''
and Rahman Qassab
There is only one Shia waqf in the district given below registered with the Shia Central Board of waqfs.
                                                                                           Annual     Objectives
                                                         Date of                           Amount of       income
Name of waqf                                 Foundation   Founder   Investment       (in Rs.)

waqf Ashra-           07.02.1900    Mst.Ashra       No cash           1300          Part of the income to be
funnisa Begam                            funnisa          only                                 spent on Azadari in Moharram
                                               Begam           property                           and the rest to spent on 
                                               Saheba         endowed                           Family members

                        WELFARE OF EX-SERVICEMEN

For the welfare of ex-servicemen there is a district soldiers',  sailors', and airmen's board in the district, established in April, 1943. It  works under the control and supervision of director, soldiers welfare, U.P.  The work of board in the district is supervised by a secretary who is a paid  employee and an ex-servicemen. The Board as else where provides various facilities to ex-servicemen and their families and assists in their rehabilitation. These facilities include pensions, scholarships, relief grants, employment of  accounts permits for controlled commodities, settlement of disputed cases,  etc.

The following statement gives the number of ex-servicemen or their  dependents who were provided with such help facilities assistance (in Rs) and  other benefits in the district from 1969-70 to 1973-74 :
                                                                        Grant of stipend/     Land allotment
Year                  Charitable         Grant of     book aid to the
                              grants            stipend        beneficiaries of
                                                                            China and Pak Wars

                          219                121                  43
1969-70       (Rs. 11915)      (Rs. 15372)        (Rs. 2922)               --
                            87                118                   23
1970-71        (Rs. 9763)      (Rs. 13644)        (Rs. 1935)                235
                            31                101                   39
1971-72        (Rs. 11690)      (Rs. 11604)        (Rs. 1191)               --
                            29                122                    71
1972-73        (Rs.  6870)      (Rs. 14582)        (Rs. 4567)               --
                            47                 89                    73
1973-74        (Rs.  8851)      (Rs. 10728)        (Rs. 4284)               199
        National awards for outstanding gallantry were given to the following 2 persons of the district till 1973-74 :
Name of Recipient                    Village and Tahsil                   Name of National awards
   with rank
Major D.N. Singh                     Village Majgawan                            Vir Chakra
                                             Tahsil Bansgaon
Fl.Lt.  R.S.Wahi                        C-10 R.N.Colony                            Vir Chakra
                                                 Mohaddipur (Gorakhpur)


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